Pharmacognosy is defined as a branch of bioscience which treats in detail medicinal & related products of crude or primary type obtained from plant, animal & mineral origins. In short, it is an objective study of crude drugs from natural sources treated scientifically and its encompasses the knowledge of the history, distribution, cultivation, collection, processing for market and preservation, the study of sensory, physical, chemical & structural characters and the uses of crude drugs. Pharmacognosy also includes study of other materials used in pharmacy such as suspending, disintegration & flavouring agents, filtering aids, etc and substances like antibiotics, allergens, hallucinogens and poisonous plants, immunizing agents, pesticides, raw materials for the production of oral contraceptives, etc.
It is indigenous to Iran, Greece, Turkey, Iraq and Syria. In India, Garhwal, Kumaon & Central Punjab are the areas where few species of tragacanth are found. North Syria and Iran supply Persian tragacanth. Smyrna tragacanth is exported from Smyrna port in Asiatic turkey.
Honey is a sugar secretion deposited in honey comb by the bees, Apis Mellifera, Apis Dorsata and other species of Apis, Belonging to family Apidae, order Hymenoptera. Synonyms: Madhu, Honey purified, Mel
Guar gum is the powder of the endosperm is the seed of cyamopsis Tetragonolobus Linn, belonging to family Leguminosae. synonyms: guar floor, Jaguar gum.
Indian Gum is dried gummy exudation obtained from the stem and branches of Acacia Arabic wild, belonging to family Leguminosae. Synonyms:Gum acacia, Gum arabic, Acacia.
carbohydrates were defined as group of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in which the later two elements are in the same proportion as in water and were expressed by a formula (CH2O)n, i.e. hydrates of carbon.
A systematic study of a crude drug under pharmacognostic scheme involves it’s description.
The term ‘crude drug’ generally applies to the products from plants & animal origin found in a raw form. It is referred in relation to the natural products that has not been advanced in value or improved in condition by an any process or treatment beyond that which is essential for its proper packing and prevention from deteriorating.